Bubble Cow is a site whose stated goal is 'helping writers to get published', and they recently posted an article to guide writers into obtaining useful feedback on their work.
Getting feedback on your novel is one thing, but getting feedback that really makes your book better is another.
Plenty of us have received what might be politely referred to as 'unhelpful feedback' in the form of dismissive anonymous commentary. That's what the internet is for, after all. (That, and cats). Bubble Cow suggests four core approaches:
- Get feedback from real readers
- Ask open-ended questions
- Keep Calm
- Filter the Feedback
I've deliberately left off their analysis on each of these steps (I do commentary and referral only on other people's articles, after all), so if this sounds like it might help, read the details here: http://www.bubblecow.net/how-to-get-feedback-on-your-novel-that-will-actually-help
I think it applies to writing feedback in general, so this will help for your short stories and general feedback.